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Patients for individualized clinical decision-making would fill an unmet clinical need. Activating somatic KRAS mutations are nearly omnipresent and a hallmark in the genetic make-up of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) [5]. While KRAS mutations themselves have been associated as prognostic markers, there is considerable and significant heterogeneity in the activation states of the downstre
Rias Y, De Baetselier P, Van Ginderachter JA. Tumor-associated macrophages in breast cancer: distinct subsets, distinct functions. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55(7-9):861-867. doi:10.1387/ijdb.113371dl. PubMed 45. Allavena P, Sica A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A. The Yin-Yang of tumorassociated macrophages in neoplastic progression and immune surveillance. Immunol Rev. 2008;222:155-161. doi:10.1111/j.1600-06
Cts that pancreatic cancer will rank second of all cancer-related mortalities by the year 2030 [1, 2]. Neither current chemotherapy nor molecular therapy provides patients with an extension of survival measured by more than a few months, or the hope for sustained tumor regressions. Even in the minority of patients who are able to undergo surgical resection, median overall survival remains poor [3
Nline submission ?Thorough peer review ?Inclusion in PubMed and all major indexing services ?Maximum visibility for your research Submit your manuscript at et al. BMC Cancer (2017) 17:495 DOI 10.1186/s12885-017-3481-RESEARCH ARTICLEOpen AccessExpression of the scaffold connector enhancer of kinase suppressor of Ras 1 (CNKSR1) is correlated with clinical out
The resected specimen and, with the limitations of reviewing small tissue cores on a TMA, was re-confirmed in select cases. No re-classifications of the original grading upon re-review were made. Of the different grading systems the WHO 2010 [WHO Classification] classification was used defining Grade 1 as well differentiated (>95 of tumor composed of glands), Grade 2 moderately differentiated (5
Ning (no staining for p-ERK (score 0); weak p-ERK (score 1+), moderate p-ERK (score 2+), and strong p-ERK (score 3 +) staining) in Fig. 3. Staining intensities were grouped as dichotomous variables, defining scores 0? as low and 2? as high expression levels [25]. Evaluation of staining was carried out independently by two pathologists (MM and MA) blinded to patients' outcome and pathological stag
T was completely absorbed at 120 DPI. The collagen fibers have high density with an aligned direction in the line of stress between the muscle and calcaneus. No obvious degeneration is seen and the cellular and collagenic structures are highly matured (B) similar to the intact tendons (C). The gastrocnemius muscle in the injured control legs shows muscle atrophy with the newly regenerated granula
Inase suppressor of Ras 1 (CNKSR1)* Correspondence: Equal contributors 1 Thoracic and Gastrointestinal Oncology Branch, Gastrointestinal Oncology Section, Investigator Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Building 10 - Hatfield CRC, Room 4-5950, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA Full list of author information is available at the end of the article?The Author(s). 20